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Distractions in design come in many forms. One form can be the quality or lack thereof in the printing process. The following photo illustrates one form of distraction because the page crossover doesn’t align. This can be caused from design files that are not properly prepared, layout, trimming, or folding. See the following example.

Cross overs


Today everyone can be a designer. No longer do you need to go to design school and purchase expensive equipment. Today you can purchase software for your personal computer. Whether using Word, PageMaker, InDesign, Publisher or one of the other software options, everyone can design their own forms or brochures.

I reviewed one of these brochures the other day, and the design principles I learned from Rochester Institute of Technology [RIT] School of Printing came to mind. Design should be prepared in a way that allows readers to receive the message of the author or the purpose of the advertisement. The design should create an atmosphere that enhances the message, not distract the reader nor should it dominate the message.

There are many ways to distract the reader from the message. Images are used many times in a design, for good reason. We all have read the quote by Napoleon Bonaparte “A picture is worth a thousand words“. When images are sized, however, some designers distort their images to make them fit the design. I believe this shouldn’t be done, for example, if an image is the correct height but not the width. When a designer elongates the image to fit the space, people in the image will look short and exceptionally fat. This distortion will distract the reader from the author’s message. Whether reading a book or sales flyer the design/images are to support the author’s message not distract from it.

Quality in Printing

Some people state we all want quality, but is that statement really accurate? How does an individual determine what is quality? If there isn’t a standard or set of project specifications can there be quality? Wikipedia states “Quality assurance, methodology of assuring conformance to specifications”. When one printed sheet or brochure is viewed by itself, it may be visually and mechanically acceptable but we can’t call it a quality printing project. To determine if a printed piece is quality we must view several printed pieces together to see how they compare to each other and to the standard or specifications [proof or original art].

As I review printing in my travels I am not seeing many quality printing projects. I don’t need the standard or proof for comparison either because I view several brochures together and they do not conform to each other. (read my blog “Print Quality”) If I am viewing non-conforming printing in the marketplace, why are print buyers accepting these projects? Why are so many in the printing industry producing non-conforming work? Is the answer because they don’t know what quality printing is? Or is it because they do not know how to produce quality?

I believe part of the reason for non-conforming printing is because some, not all, do not know the fundamentals of printing, because they were never taught. For a student to learn the fundamentals of printing, the teacher or mentor must be knowledgeable and experienced in the trade. Read our previous blog about the importance of the Job Bag a key fundamental in the trade. Individuals will practice what they have been taught, and when they have been taught the fundamentals, quality will improve.

Bleeding Edge: Setting up your print design files

If furnished art doesn’t have the necessary bleeds, the printer may choose one of the following options to compensate for the lack of bleed; e.g. enlarge the image, clone the image, or when trimming to under size the printing.

Dreaming in CMYK

Bleed is something the everyday printer finds themselves explaining on nearly a daily basis. Don’t worry – it’s not a safety issue that needs addressed. It’s a print production issue, and there’s a lot you can do to ensure your document is set up for it.


Bleed refers to the area of a design, including colors, images and design elements, that extend beyond the trim line of any given page. This prevents any undesirable white lines, or margins, from appearing on the edge of your page after cutting.

In the print world, it is very common for us to receive files that do not include this bleed area, but have images or design elements that run right up to the edge of the sheet. By not adding the bleed, your final product may have a small white margin that appears along the edge of the piece due to shifting while…

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I’m Dreaming of a R237, G252, B255 Christmas

The following article written by Paul Deuth, provides a unique color perspective, his website is .

For those who don’t see color in RGB numbers, you may enter the RGB references into the following website for a visual reference,

There are times of the year when color is more important. Here in New England, in the fall, we make a big fuss over the changing color of the foliage, especially our trees. This is a cultural thing, something we hold as a community, something we pass down year to year. Christmas and the Holiday season is another such period. We have, as a culture, designated certain colors to be important, we go to lengths to display and decorate with colors, and we include colors in our songs, songs which are cultural property and icons, repeated every year. As a color geek I will examine a few of these musical references.

The first song that comes to mind is the old Bing Crosby standard, “I’m Dreaming of a RGB (237, 252, 255) Christmas.” Your first reaction, of course, will be, “Why those numbers? Why not (255, 255, 255)?” Good question. That raises a bunch of issues. First, a statement of the obvious, just to establish us with the theory: color has three elements – a light source, a sensor, and an object;
in this case the object is snow and the light source is not specified. Nor is the sensor or observer. I have chosen a bit of a blue light source, something just a bit cool, and something more typical of what we might perceive as a “typical” winter day. Granted that cloudy days are common during the winter, and granted that, here in the upper latitudes where there is snow, there is more time spend in the absence rather than the presence of a light source, I still chose a slight blue color cast to the light source. Choosing another will change our perception of the snow.

I admit to another bias as well. I chose an object, a snow sample, pure and pristine. There is no pollution or chromatic degradation in my snow sample. That, in reality, is not always the case. Indeed, most people live in groups, away from pure and pristine sources of snow samples; their perception of the color of snow will be different, in their native habitats, than if we transport those observers away from the comfort of their homes and apartments. Many, if not most, will decline our invitation to go look as pure and pristine snow far away and out in the cold.

On the other hand, there will be a larger area, a larger sample, of snow-object to perceive, given that more space is available outside urban and suburban areas from which to sample. There is nothing inherently democratic about snow or snowfall, so seeking to define color by the number of observers, rather than the size of the snow sample/population, is a poor argument. Nevertheless, the fact remains that snow, as a colored object, will have different colors, even if only slightly different in the “pure and pristine” state.

Why use the RGB color model? Well, it’s difficult to assign a number to snow and it’s not so easy bringing a sample into my workroom to measure with a spectrophotometer. My best choice of technique is to use a calibrated and characterized digital camera as a sensor or observer. Those devices normally separate the natural spectrum in the RGB color space. This is the basis for this choice. I can convert those numbers, with a particular degree of confidence, into LAB or HSL numbers in those color spaces, but haven’t bothered to do the statistical analysis necessary to create such a confidence interval. Forgive my lapse, please, in the Spirit of the Season.

There is another popular song which comes to mind. It was a play on the Crosby recording, I’m quite sure, some kind of a cultural statement or critique on what the Crosby song, and Crosby
himself, represented. The song was recorded and popularized by Elvis Presley, who, at that time, represented something very different, culturally, from Mr. Crosby. I’m referring, of course, to the hit song, “Lab (31, 51, -99) Christmas”. Again, as before, I chose that particular color. My reasoning is that the color reflects a certain sadness or regret or heartache, and that ought to be reflected (no pun intended) in the choice of color. So cheerful hues and tones were rejected and something more purple was chosen.

I can design a study to more scientifically determine the particular color such an emotional state elicits. The song under examination here specifies a particular condition: the sweetheart of the singer has just ditched him, and he’s aware of not only his sadness and loss, but of how this contrasts with our cultural expectations for the holiday season, highlighting further, one must
assume, such a sensation of sadness and loss. Now, finding such a sample of ditched sweethearts would be difficult and expensive; creating such a sample would be cruel, and contrary to the Spirit of the Season. While I might justify the sacrifice of my subjects in the name of science, at the end of the day the resources necessary for such a study do not exist. Perhaps the reader will contribute their own choices, which we might average in some agreed upon manner. By the way, the Lab color space was chosen to reflect the human commonality of sadness and loss; it’s a “universal” experience, so the “universal” space was adopted.

It was just the day after Thanksgiving, that Friday, when I heard the season’s first (local) broadcast of “Rudolph the RGB (230, 0, 0)-nosed Reindeer”. My first reaction was, “Not already,” in anticipation of a month of such songs. Yet there it was, coming over my car radio as I drove in a yet to be snow-covered landscape (see above). We must be aware that this is a very different color model. That particular nose was an emissive source, making the additive, rather than the subtractive, model the appropriate choice. The particular choice, above, is again mine; you are welcome to make your own. I chose a rather pure hue, totally saturated, but slightly diminished in brightness. I am allowing Rudolph a bit of compassion, earned by his tireless dedication to leadership and the fulfillment of the hopes and dreams of children everywhere. Even such an admirable reindeer is permitted a bit of fatigue, I think.

The RGB model or space is the best descriptor or model for emissive, additive color. It’s not device-independent, but in this case we’re examining a very particular, very special, and very valuable light and color source: Rudolph’s wonderful snout. It’s a wonderful image and I can almost hear the jingling bells.

The segue leads me to the old standard, “HSB (0,0, 80) Bells”. This is a tricky one, I think. Are those bells simply grey? What, precisely, in the construction of the bells in question? This deserves a bit of analysis and definition. Bells might be made of silver, but making a bell of pure silver would be a poor choice from both the sound rendering capability and from the durability and reliability specification or requirement. Most are, in fact, made of bronze, a metal certainly not appearing to be any sort of grey or silver. What the song most likely refers to is a chromium-plated bronze bell. Now, this is a bell of a different color, to mix metaphors. We have introduced gloss and specularity into our measurements and equations now. And we have, most likely, changed our color away from a pure grey to something with a more definite hue. Is chrome a color, or is it a process, or is it the
metal used in that process? There are vendors who sell different hues or colors of chrome, and we can argue that chrome, more than most objects or materials, reflects rather than modifies the light falling upon it. In reality, then, assigning a color specification to the bells is difficult, and made more difficult when the specular or gloss component must be included.

While this analysis does have some value, there is something wrong with it. That error is foundational, I think, coming from the very concept of the study. Assigning specific values to what is the realm of culture, cultural memory, and sentiment must fall short from the beginning. While science and technology has definite use and value, such usefulness does not universally apply. In the end, dreaming of a white Christmas, or feeling blue that one has lost ones sweetheart, or enjoying the image of a magnificent reindeer with his glowing nose, and the images brought to mind by silver bells, seems to satisfy the requirements of the cultural customer much better than specifications rendered by science and color science. In the Spirit of the Holidays, then, Merry Christmas, Happy Hanukkah and Holidays, and a Happy New Year to one and all.

Some possible snow colors, in the RGB model:
 (237, 252, 255) as described in the article
 (255, 255, 255) as a more theoretical choice
 (213, 227, 229) for a less bright setting
 (212, 187, 158) for a dirty snow

The entire lyrics for “Blue Christmas”:
I’ll have a Blue Christmas without you
I’ll be so blue thinking about you
Decorations of red on a green Christmas tree
Won’t be the same dear, if you’re not here with me
And the when those blue snowflakes start fallin’
That’s when those blue memories start callin’
You’ll be doin’ all right, with your Christmas of white
But I’ll have a blue, blue, blue, blue Christmas
I got something more purple from this; your reaction and choice will be different.

While the Number One hit of “Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer” was sung by Gene Autry, it’s notable that a year or so later a Number Six hit of the same song was recorded by Bing Crosby, the same artist who sang “White Christmas”. Those two songs are the largest sellers and/or money earners of any Holiday season songs. And, as we have demonstrated, both are concerned with color.

There is an entire body of work on the effects of gloss and reflection on the perception of color. In general an increase in saturation is observed with an increase in gloss. However, in this case we’re examining a neutral or near-neutral hue or color, and a material that acts more as a reflector of light than as light’s modifier. We might discuss this in much detail, even while humming the song, “Silver Bells.”

My color engine of choice here was Adobe Photoshop. There are other color engines, but this is the one I most often use. It does the job and does it well. It’s familiar in our area, and trusted as a good tool. My personal color settings for this were:
 RGB: Adobe RGB (1998)
 CMYK: Coated Fogra39 (ISO 12647-2)
 Engine: ACE
 Intent: Relative Colorimetric with Black Point Compensation

We got, last night, around 7 inches of new snow here in rural Connecticut. I must go outside shortly to remove it from my automobile and driveway, the better to get to work tomorrow. (Today is Sunday, December 15, 2013). On top of that snow is a coating of ice and sleet. I must admit that my thoughts will not be so pure and pristine as I shovel that stuff. That color, by the way, would be something like Lab (42 ,21, 54), but let’s not let this detract from the Spirit of the Season.

I trust you enjoyed Paul Deuth’s color article. Paul’s website is

I trust you have a Merry Christmas and Happy New Year.


Harvesting Cranberries

Harvesting a Massachusetts cranberry bog in October, 2013. These berries will go to Ocean Spray who controls 80% [approx.] of the cranberry market. Check out the other cranberry harvesting and question & answer videos at

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How Maslow’s theory applies to sourcing

Procurement hierarchy based on Maslow’s Theory, starting with basmaslow's_hierarchy_businessballsic business needs [providing goods and services on time, with quality, and at a competitive cost], risk minimization [have backup plan so product or service isn’t disrupted when catastrophe occurs], value / stakeholder satisfaction [elimination of waste, increasing profit, minimal supplier issues], breakthrough innovations [streamline of design workflow allowing new products to market sooner], key relationships [win-win, ideal supplier relationship], based on Maslow’s Theory. Let us know your thoughts.

How Maslow’s theory applies to sourcing. [SpringTide  Consulting article on how Maslow’s theory could be applied to procurement]

How to Ensure all Printers Print your Color Consistently!

When multiple printers are required to produce your printing, are they all producing the same look or color? If your corporate color isn’t consistent, consider the following;

  • Content/Asset library: Maintain a single source library where all images are stored. These images have the latest corrections. This is critical since many times the client uses an image and during the proofing process requests corrections. The master content library should be updated with the corrected image, when approved.
  • Profile press: Confirm that each printer periodically is verifying/adjusting their proofs to represent what each press will reproduce.
  • Color Proofs: Review hard proofs in a viewing booth with original art. Only review soft proofs on a calibrated [daily] monitor. Before utilizing soft proofs, have each printer verify their profiled presses/hard proofs are verified on the customers soft proof monitor. When viewing soft proofs use original art when available. Concerns using soft proofs include; how will spot varnishes, coatings or other finishing operations be confirmed that they align and trap properly? How will intricate folds be verified and confirm that images align when there are no hard proofs?
  • Viewing Booth: If color is critical, confirm that the viewing booth is correct and lighting is calibrated and at the correct temperature. [It takes 10 to 20 minutes for 5000k lamps to achieve correct temperature]
  • Printers Bars: Request six [6] consecutive full press sheets from each press sign off. Confirm that the press is not slurring, doubling, and the ink density for each color is correct.
  • Original art: Available as a reference when reviewing proofs or press sheets.
  • PMS Books: Confirm age of PMS book. The older and the more a PMS book is utilized the less accurate it becomes because light will denigrate the ink/colors. The other problem with PMS books is they are manufactured and with any process there can be variation between books. If certain PMS colors are important it is best to provide ink drawdowns.
  • Ink Drawdowns: Corporate colors are associated to a PMS color, however many times when ink drawdowns are provided via the printer they need to be adjusted to match the clients color and labeled accordingly, e.g. PMS 123 ABC. To ensure all printers start with the same color, send ink drawdowns, along with wet ink samples, for the substrate being printed.
  • Stock: Have all printers printing on the same substrate. The color of the substrate can change the color being reproduced.
  • Process Builds of PMS: Consistently use the same process builds, since one project may be built using several software programs and each may build PMS colors out of process differently. Your company may also want to adjust the standard tint build to improve the color reproduction.
  • Wet Samples: When ink drawdowns are approved a small container of the ink used for the drawdown is filed for future use. Wet samples don’t deteriorate as quickly as ink drawdowns or PMS books.

If I can assist with any questions, an audit or consulting project, in regards to printing or purchasing, please contact me via e-mail at

How do You See Color?

Color is everywhere we look today. Whether you are watching television, on your computer, you are outside, or reading printing, color is everywhere. Those in the printing industry know the importance of good color reproduction and the obstacles or limitations faced in that reproduction and the viewing of that reproduction.

“Color or colour (see spelling differences) is the visual perceptual property corresponding in humans to the categories called red, blue, yellow, green and others. Color derives from the spectrum of light (distribution of light power versus wavelength) interacting in the eye with the spectral sensitivities of the light receptors. Color categories and physical specifications of color are also associated with objects, materials, light sources, etc., based on their physical properties such as light absorption, reflection, or emission spectra. By defining a color space, colors can be identified numerically by their coordinates.”

Some of the obstacles or limitations faced in color reproduction or viewing are:

– Physical limitations

  • Color Blindness
    • Deuteranopia
    • Protanopia
    • Tritanopia

–  Lighting

  • Stray light
  • Glare
  • Light reflections
  • Ambient Light
  • Fluctuation in room Lighting
  • Color temperature

– Equipment or process capabilities

  • LED, LCD
    • Brightness
    • Contrast
    • Color temperature
    • Lithography, digital printers, etc.
      • Pigments

–  Substrates

  • Color
  • Surface

If there are color issues, hopefully the physical limitations of those reviewing color have been tested and reviewed. The following web links illustrate what color-challenged individuals see.


Have you taken a color test? Try one or all of the following tests to see if there are any challenges you have seeing color.


The Ishihara Color Test for Color Blindness


FM100 Hue Test by X-Rite [Farnsworth Munsell]


Color Arrangement Test

The Daltonien Test

Layouts a Key Element in a Job Bag

Have you ever been on a trip and got lost? If you have, maybe it’s because there was no trip ticket, map or Garmin showing which roads and exits to take. With a printing project there also must be directions to layout, print, and finish the printing project. This direction is provided via the job layout [map]. For every printed component included in the Job Bag there is a layout for each component. Each layout can have one or multiple components.

Layouts have many components. The following are several main or key components:

  • Substrate size
  • Press
  • Gripper
  • Side guide
  • Bleed
  • Gaps
  • Reverse images
  • Take-off bars
  • Folds
  • Grain direction
  • How the sheet is backed up
  • Form number[s]
  • Head direction
  • Items keyed to job bag listing
  • Job number
  • Customer
  • Other

The information provided on the layout should provide production workers with all the necessary information to produce each component of the customer’s project successfully. Calls or questions concerning a form are usually the result of incomplete or inaccurate instructions.

Within the last year, I was in a print shop and they had printed a poster. I didn’t review the layout. However, it was clearly apparent that there was no layout for the project. How can pre-press accept a project without a layout? Without a layout how will the Mac operator know if the image files provide adequate image for bleeds? How will imposition know where and in what direction to place the images in the plate file, or If there are images missing or where to place the crop marks? How will quality assurance verify a press rule-up if there is no layout? The odds are there is no quality assurance in this print shop, or knowledgeable print professionals!

If the layout isn’t complete it is up to the pre-press manager to stop the job or be provided a correct layout. If the pre-press manager is allowing incorrect or incomplete layouts to enter into production, corrective action should be taken. The old adage is true, “you can pay me now or pay me later” [YouTube video Link] and later is always more expensive.

Print buyers, when touring a printing company, should look for a project’s corresponding layout. If you have a project being worked on, ask to see a job bag, and then review it for completeness and accuracy of information. As a print buyer, if at all possible, provide all the information concerning the project when the print order is placed with the print sales representative. During my years in printing, one of the best ways to minimize cost was to insure the layout answered all questions which will minimize added work or extra steps for production.

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